*** Akron Polymer Training Services now offers remote learning training courses featuring live instructors. In addition to our courses held at the Akron Polymer Technology Services training center, we now offer courses that can be taken online from your home or office.

We want you to have a great experience participating in our remote (online) courses, and for that, you’ll need the right equipment and internet connection.

Minimum needs are:

  • A broadband internet connection that has at least a 2 Mbps upload and download speed.
  • A computer (PC or Mac) that can support the latest web browser versions.
  • At least 4 GB of RAM and adequate hard drive space.
  • A microphone and a speaker.

For more information, visit our Online Course Requirements webpage. ***

Understanding Dynamic Properties of Rubber and Rubber Products

Course Number: 072-0628 (formerly AP3497)
Date: 09/08/2020 - 09/09/2020
Time: 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM
Location: Akron Polymer Training Center, Akron, OH 44325-5404, U.S.A.
Cost: $900 USD
Online Registration
CEU's: 1.6
Instructor: John Dick and Karl Winkler

Course Overview

This two-day course gives a thorough review of dynamic properties from A to Z. It defines rubber dynamic properties in practical terms. Special attention is given to performance applications of rubber components and parts. A review of different properties of rubber itself and how these different properties are affected by formulation changes are also discussed. This course includes an effective balance between the practical and theoretical aspects of rubber dynamic properties.

Instructor Biographies:

John S. Dick, a senior rubber scientist with Alpha Technologies, has over thirty years of experience in the rubber industry. Mr. Dick has authored over 50 journal and magazine publications and four books on polymer technology. He received the Monsanto Master Technical Service Award in 1994, the ACS Rubber Division Best Paper Award in 1995 and a University of Akron Appreciation Award in 1998 for Teaching Polymer Compounding Courses in their Continuing Education Program. He is a Fellow of ASTM International receiving the Award of Merit in 1990. In addition, he has represented the United States as a delegate to the ISO for the last 20 years. He was appointed in 1992 to be Leader of the U.S. Delegation to ISO TC-45 on Rubber. Mr. Dick teaches rubber technology courses at both University of Akron and University of Wisconsin continuing education departments. He received his B.S. degree from Virginia Polytechnic Institute in 1970 and an M.A. from the University of Akron in 1979.

karl-winklerKarl Winkler is President of Experimental Services, Inc., an independent laboratory specializing in the design, testing, and development of engineered polymer products. He specializes in dynamic and fatigue test methods. Karl was formerly employed at Teledyne Monarch Rubber Company as a product design engineer, and developed products including vibration dampers, hydraulic engine mounts, and rubber􀁍to-metal bonded suspension components.

Karl has authored papers for SAE concerning tuned vibration absorbers and conducted lectures on test methods for the Akron Rubber Group. He has provided in-house seminars on designing vibration dampers at various divisions of Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler. He is a member of SAE, ACS, and the Akron Rubber Group. Karl holds degrees in Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry from the University of Akron.

Day 1: Part 1 - Basic Principles of Rheology and Dynamic Properties of Rubber

ELASTIC QUALITY

  • Hooke's Law
  • Modulus
  • Exercises

VISCOUS QUALITY

  • Flow
  • Viscosity
  • Calculation of Viscosity
  • Newtonian Fluids
  • Non-Newtonian Behavior
  • Exercises

VISCOELASTIC QUALITY

  • Voigt and Maxwell Models
  • Illustrations
  • Creep Experiments
  • Stress Relaxation Experiments

SINUSOIDAL DEFORMATION AND RESPONSES

  • S', S", S*, Phase Angle, Tan
  • Rebound
  • Uncured tan
  • Cure tan
  • Exercise

INSTRUMENT CONFIGURATIONS AND MEASURE UNITS

  • Ranges of test conditions
  • Types of tests
  • Frequency Sweep
  • Strain Sweep
  • Temperature Sweep
  • Cure Test
  • Time Sweep
  • Test configurations for polymer characterization
  • Test configurations for Processability
  • Test configurations for cure and after-cure dynamic property measurements
  • Die cavity vs unsealed cavity
  • Calculation of % strain for angle of oscillation
  • Laminar movement
  • Estimating Pressure
  • Exercise

SHEAR MODULUS

  • G', G", G*
  • Calculations and Use of Conversion Factors
  • Vector Analysis
  • Use of G' vs S' in High Strain Sweep
  • Exercise

DYNAMIC VISCOSITY

  • eta', eta", eta *
  • Calculation from G', G" and G*
  • Calculation of Shear Rates
  • Cox-Merz Rule
  • Exercise

COMPLIANCE

  • J', J", J*
  • Calculation from G', G", and G*
  • Relevance
  • Exercise

EXTENSION/COMPRESSION MODULUS

  • E', E", E*
  • Relation of E to G
  • Poisson's Ratio
  • MTS vs RPA Testing
  • D', D", D*
  • Calculation of D from E
  • Exercise

SPRING RATE CONSTANTS AND DAMPING COEFFICIENTS

  • Spring Rate Definition
  • K', K", K*
  • Vector Analysis
  • Damping Coefficients

TIME AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT PROPERTIES

  • Definition of WLF
  • Examples of WLF with Polymers and Mixed Stocks

Day 1: Part II Applications - Testing and Evaluating Dynamic Properties in Rubber Materials and Rubber Products

WHICH DYNAMIC TEST METHOD TO USE

  • Free Vibration – Yerzley, Rebound, Bayshore, Lupke
  • Forced Vibration – DMS, DMTA, RSA, RPA

SYSTEM APPLICATION TESTS

  • Frequency
  • Natural frequency
  • Damped Natural Frequency
  • Forced Vibration
  • Free Vibration
  • Mode of Vibration
  • Single Degree of Freedom System
  • Multiple Degree of Freedom System
  • Resonance
  • Harmonic

AUTOMOTIVE NVH TERMS

  • Lateral, Fore & Aft
  • Longitudinal
  • Pitch
  • Yaw
  • Roll
  • Buzz
  • Boom
  • Roar
  • Crowds
  • Harshness
  • Plushness
  • Shake
  • Shuffle, Bobble
  • Road Noise, Buzz

Day 2

AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

  • Transverse Engine Six Degrees of Freedom
  • Vertical Bounce Mode Effect on Vehicle
  • Single Degree of Freedom System
  • Natural Frequency of Resonant Frequency
  • Inertance Transfer Function
  • Evaluating Rubber Damping – Log Decrement Technique
  • Two Degrees of Freedom Systems

VIBRATION DAMPER DESIGN PROCEDURE

  • Tuned Vibration Absorbers
  • Shear Modulus vs. Durometer Hardness
  • Mass Ratio
  • Tuning Ratio
  • Damping Level

FORCED VIBRATION TESTING OF RUBBER MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS

  • Examples
  • Mold Bonded Compression
  • Quad Lap Shear (QLS)
  • Dynamic Stiffness
  • MTS Shape Factor
  • Strain Sweeps
  • Compressive Static Graphs
  • Effects of Surface Conditions, Bonding, Sandpaper, Dry/Clean, Talc, Vasoline
  • Frequency Sweep
  • Material Transmissibility
  • Pre-strain Sweep
  • Temperature Sweep
  • Heat Build Up

MECHANICAL FATIGUE TESTING OF RUBBER

  • Fatigue Life and Crack Growth
  • Primary Failure
  • Secondary Failure
  • Fatigue Test Control Methods
  • Stress Control (Load Control)
  • Strain Control (Displacement Control)
  • Indirect Control
  • Calculated Variables
  • Spectrum
  • Remote Parameter Control (RPC)
  • Engine Mount Fatigue Graphs
  • Crack Initiation and Growth, Micro Cracking, Strain Energy and Crack Propagation

Day 2: Part III - Compounding Rubber for Dynamic Properties

ELASTOMERS

  • Important Elastomer Properties (Tg, MW, MWD, LCB)
  • Plastic vs. Rubber
  • Kinetic Theory of Rubber Elasticity
  • Molecular Motions in Different Regions of the Master Curve
  • Time Temperature Superpositioning (WLF Equation)
  • Effects of Chemical Structure on Glass Transition (Tg)
  • Main Chain Flexibility, Steric Hindrance, Symmetry, Branching,MW
  • Effects of Blending
  • Natural Rubber (NR)
  • Polyisoprene (IR)
  • Polybutadiene (BR)
  • Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR)
  • EPDM
  • Polychloroprene (CR)
  • Butyl Rubber (IIR)
  • Nitrile Rubber (NBR)
  • Silicone Rubber (Q)

PLASTICIZERS

  • Predictive Equation for Tg
  • Compatibility

VULCANIZATION

  • Optimal Cure
  • Effects of Crosslink Type

CARBON BLACK

  • Carbon Black Reinforcement
  • Effects of Surface Area
  • Effects of Structure
  • Effects of Surface Activity

COMPOUND MIXING

  • Effects of Mixing on Strain Amplitude Dependence of G’ and Tan delta
  • Dispersion vs. Fill Factor