Testing of Rubber Processability and Dynamic Properties - 2 Day Course

Course Number: AP3283
Date: 02/02/2017 - 02/03/2017
Time: 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM
Location: Akron Polymer Training Center, Akron, OH 44325-5404
Cost: $900 USD
Online Registration
CEU's: 1.5
Instructor: Mr. John Dick

Course Overview

This two-day course is designed to help rubber professionals such as rubber chemists, engineers, compounders, laboratory and production managers, and associates better understand the various methods available to measure rubber processing, dynamic properties, and the fundamental rheological principles on which these tests are based. How specific changes in rubber compound formulations will affect these measured processing properties, as well as the cured dynamic properties will be discussed. The topics of Mooney viscosity and stress relaxation, the oscillating disk rheometer, and the moving die rheometer will be presented. The presentation will include the use of the Rubber Process Analyzer to characterize raw rubber, predict downstream processability for mixed stocks, and measure curing characteristics. The use of the capillary rheometer in measuring rubber compounding processability will be reviewed. Students are encouraged to bring and discuss their unique processing problems.

Instructor Biography:

John S. Dick, a senior rubber scientist with Alpha Technologies, has over thirty years of experience in the rubber industry. Mr. Dick has authored over 50 journal and magazine publications and four books on polymer technology. He received the Monsanto Master Technical Service Award in 1994, the ACS Rubber Division Best Paper Award in 1995 and a University of Akron Appreciation Award in 1998 for Teaching Polymer Compounding Courses in their Continuing Education Program. He is a Fellow of ASTM International receiving the Award of Merit in 1990. In addition, he has represented the United States as a delegate to the ISO for the last 20 years. He was appointed in 1992 to be Leader of the U.S. Delegation to ISO TC-45 on Rubber. Mr. Dick teaches rubber technology courses at both University of Akron and University of Wisconsin continuing education departments. He received his B.S. degree from Virginia Polytechnic Institute in 1970 and an M.A. from the University of Akron in 1979.

Click to view Course Outline

Unit 1 - Fundamental Measurable Properties Affecting Factory Processability

  • Review of viscosity, shear thinning, green strength, uncured elasticity, V/E ratio, tackiness, surface exudation, stickiness, surface lubricity and cure properties (time to scorch, ultimate state of cure, anaerobic heat aging, reversion, marching modulus and cure-blow balance).
  • Relate to behavioral definitions of processability for Banbury mixing, milling, extrusion, bin storage stability, calendering, second step tire building, compression molding, transfer molding, injection molding and autoclave curing.

Unit 2 - Basic Overview of Rheology and Dynamic Properties

  • Elasticity: definition, examples, calculations, applications
  • Viscous Quality: definition, examples, calculations, applications
  • Viscoelasticity: definition, examples, calculations, applications
  • Sinusoidal Definition and Measurements: definition, examples, calculations, dynamic torque properties, S', S'', tan delta, applicatations

Unit 3 - Basic Overview of Rheology and Dynamic Properties PART II

  • Dynamic modulus (G', G'', G*): definitions, examples, calculations, applications
  • Dynamic viscosity (η',η'',η*): definitions, examples, calculations, applications
  • Dynamic Compliance (j', j'', j*): definitions, examples, calculations, applications
  • Dynamic modulus and compliance under extension or compression (E', E'', E*, D', D'', D*): definitions, examples, calculations, applications
  • Dynamic Spring Rate Constant (K', K'', K*): definitions, examples, calculations, applications
  • WLF Time-Temperature Superposition: definitions, examples, calculations, applications

Unit 4 - Curemeters, ODR, MDR and Mooney Viscosity

  • Discussion of oscillating disc curemeter
  • Discussion of the Moving Die Rheometer (MDR)
  • MDR Design
  • MDR Applications
  • MDR Dynamic Properties and Applications
  • Using dynamic properties to detect assignable causes of variation
  • Mooney Viscosity description and applications
  • Mooney Stress Relaxation description and applications

Unit 5 - Rubber Process Analyzer

  • RPA Definition
  • RPA comparative advantages
  • Applications in raw rubber characterization and quality assurance
  • Measuring raw rubber Avg. MW, MWD, Long Chain Branching and gel
  • Testing Natural Rubber, SBR, BR, NBR, EPDM.
  • RPA testing of quality of mix for Banbury batches using G', G'' and tan delta
  • RPA measurements of effects from order of mix changes
  • RPA measurements of time of oiling on Banbury batch properties
  • RPA measurements of different phase mixing techniques
  • Advantages of frequency sweeps vs. strain sweeps
  • RPA ASTM Standard Methods, D6204, D6601 and D7050
  • Advantages of low strain vs. high strain measurements relating to carbon black particle size vs. structure
  • Using RPA G'' to measure effects of plasticizer oils on rubber compound processing and cured physical properties
  • Using the S'' cure curve for better scorch detection

Unit 6 - Capillary Rheometry

  • Definitions and illustrations
  • Shear thinning profiles
  • Comparison of different capillary rheometers
  • Measuring die swell
  • Bagley Correction
  • Rabinowitsch Correction
  • Extrudate appearance and melt fracture
  • Comparison of Capillary Rheometer vs. RPA
  • Applications of Capillary Rheometer in rubber mixing, extrusion, injection molding and calendering

Unit 7 - Rubber Compounding Techniques to Achieve Selected Dynamic Properties

  • Effects of different raw elastomers on cured compound dynamic properties
  • Effects of molecular structure of different polymers on glass transition temperature and resulting dynamic properties
  • Comparison of rheology master curves and dynamic properties
  • Effects of carbon black on compound dynamic properties
  • Effects of oils on compound dynamic properties
  • Effects of different curative packages on compound dynamic properties

Unit 8 - Applications of Rubber in Vibration Noise Harshness

  • Rubber metal component design
  • Natural resonance frequency
  • Effects of mass and stiffness
  • The function of rubber isolators
  • The function of rubber dampers
  • Specific designs